[see also: magnitude]
Clearly, $F$ has size $\le p$.
All inputs of size $n$ are equally likely to occur.
Their result gives no information when $k$ is large, whereas (5) is significant regardless of the size of $k$.
The aim of this article is to study the relationship between the size of $A$, as measured by its diameter, and the extent to which $A$ fails to be convex.
Then $P$ is the product of several integer factors of about $x^n$ in size.