## Universally measurable sets in generic extensions

### Volume 208 / 2010

#### Abstract

A subset of a topological space is said to be *universally
measurable* if it is measured by the completion of each countably additive $\sigma$-finite Borel measure on the space, and
*universally null* if it has measure zero for each such atomless measure. In 1908, Hausdorff proved that there exist universally null sets of real numbers of cardinality $\aleph_{1}$, and thus that there exist at least $2^{\aleph_{1}}$ such sets. Laver showed in the 1970's that consistently there are just continuum many universally null sets of reals. The question of whether there exist more than continuum many universally measurable sets of reals was asked by Mauldin in 1978. We show that consistently there exist only continuum many universally measurable sets. This result also follows from work of Ciesielski and Pawlikowski on the iterated Sacks model. In the models we consider (forcing extensions by suitably-sized random algebras) every set of reals is universally measurable
if and only if it and its complement are unions of ground model continuum many Borel sets.