## Symmetries of spatial graphs in 3-manifolds

### Volume 255 / 2021

#### Abstract

We consider when automorphisms of a graph can be induced by homeomorphisms of embeddings of the graph in a $3$-manifold. In particular, we prove that every automorphism of a graph is induced by a homeomorphism of some embedding of the graph in a connected sum of one or more copies of $S^2\times S^1$, yet there exist automorphisms which are not induced by a homeomorphism of any embedding of the graph in any orientable, closed, connected, irreducible $3$-manifold. We also prove that for any $3$-connected graph $G$, if an automorphism $\sigma $ is induced by a homeomorphism of an embedding of $G$ in an irreducible $3$-manifold $M$, then $G$ can be embedded in an orientable, closed, connected $3$-manifold $M’$ such that $\sigma $ is induced by a finite order homeomorphism of $M’$, though this is not true for graphs which are not $3$-connected. Finally, we show that many symmetry properties of graphs in $S^3$ hold for graphs in homology spheres, yet we give an example of an automorphism of a graph $G$ that is induced by a homeomorphism of some embedding of $G$ in the Poincaré homology sphere, but is not induced by a homeomorphism of any embedding of $G$ in $S^3$.