One-parameter families of brake orbits in dynamical systems
We give a clear and systematic exposition of one-parameter families of brake orbits in dynamical systems on product vector bundles (where the fiber has the same dimension as the base manifold). A generalized definition of a brake orbit is given, and the relationship between brake orbits and periodic orbits is discussed. The brake equation, which implicitly encodes information about the brake orbits of a dynamical system, is defined. Using the brake equation, a one-parameter family of brake orbits is defined as well as two notions of nondegeneracy by which a given brake orbit embeds into a one-parameter family of brake orbits. The duality between the two notions of nondegeneracy for a brake orbit in a one-parameter family is described. Finally, four ways in which a given periodic brake orbit generates a one-parameter family of periodic brake orbits are detailed.