## Marczewski-Burstin-like characterizations of σ-algebras, ideals, and measurable functions

### Volume 82 / 1999

#### Abstract

ℒ denotes the Lebesgue measurable subsets of ℝ and $ℒ_0$ denotes the sets of Lebesgue measure 0. In 1914 Burstin showed that a set M ⊆ ℝ belongs to ℒ if and only if every perfect P ∈ ℒ\$ℒ_0$ has a perfect subset Q ∈ ℒ\$ℒ_0$ which is a subset of or misses M (a similar statement omitting "is a subset of or" characterizes $ℒ_0$). In 1935, Marczewski used similar language to define the σ-algebra (s) which we now call the "Marczewski measurable sets" and the σ-ideal $(s^0)$ which we call the "Marczewski null sets". M ∈ (s) if every perfect set P has a perfect subset Q which is a subset of or misses M. M ∈ $(s^0)$ if every perfect set P has a perfect subset Q which misses M. In this paper, it is shown that there is a collection G of $G_δ$ sets which can be used to give similar "Marczewski-Burstin-like" characterizations of the collections $B_w$ (sets with the Baire property in the wide sense) and FC (first category sets). It is shown that no collection of $F_σ$ sets can be used for this purpose. It is then shown that no collection of Borel sets can be used in a similar way to provide Marczewski-Burstin-like characterizations of $B_r$ (sets with the Baire property in the restricted sense) and AFC (always first category sets). The same is true for U (universally measurable sets) and $U_0$ (universal null sets). Marczewski-Burstin-like characterizations of the classes of measurable functions are also discussed.