Existence of large $\varepsilon$-Kronecker and $FZI_0(U)$ sets in discrete abelian groups

Volume 127 / 2012

Colin C. Graham, Kathryn E. Hare Colloquium Mathematicum 127 (2012), 1-15 MSC: Primary 42A55, 42A63, 43A25, 43A46; Secondary 43A05, 43A25. DOI: 10.4064/cm127-1-1


Let $G$ be a compact abelian group with dual group $\Gamma$ and let $\varepsilon>0$. A set ${\bf E}\subset\Gamma$ is a “weak $\varepsilon$-Kronecker set” if for every $\varphi:{\bf E}\to\mathbb T$ there exists $x$ in the dual of $\Gamma$ such that $|\varphi(\gamma)- \gamma(x)| \le \varepsilon$ for all $\gamma\in {\bf E}$. When $\varepsilon<\sqrt2$, every bounded function on ${\bf E}$ is known to be the restriction of a Fourier–Stieltjes transform of a discrete measure. (Such sets are called $I_0$.)

We show that for every infinite set ${\bf E}$ there exists a weak 1-Kronecker subset ${\bf F}$, of the same cardinality as ${\bf E}$, provided there are not “too many” elements of order 2 in the subgroup generated by ${\bf E}$. When there are “too many” elements of order 2, we show that there exists a subset ${\bf F}$, of the same cardinality as ${\bf E}$, on which every $\{-1,1\}$-valued function can be interpolated exactly. Such sets are also $I_0$. In both cases, the set ${\bf F}$ also has the property that the only continuous character at which ${\bf F}\cdot{\bf F}^{-1}$ can cluster in the Bohr topology is ${\bf1}$. This improves upon previous results concerning the existence of $I_0$ subsets of a given ${\bf E}$.


  • Colin C. GrahamDepartment of Mathematics
    University of British Columbia
    Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Mailing address:
    P.O. Box 2031 Haines Junction, YT, Canada Y0B 1L0
  • Kathryn E. HareDepartment of Pure Mathematics
    University of Waterloo
    Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1

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