Heat kernels and Riesz transforms on nilpotent Lie groups
We consider pure mth order subcoercive operators with complex coefficients acting on a connected nilpotent Lie group. We derive Gaussian bounds with the correct small time singularity and the optimal large time asymptotic behaviour on the heat kernel and all its derivatives, both right and left. Further we prove that the Riesz transforms of all orders are bounded on the Lp -spaces with p ∈ (1, ∞). Finally, for second-order operators with real coefficients we derive matching Gaussian lower bounds and deduce Harnack inequalities valid for all times.