The homotopy dimension of codiscrete subsets of the 2-sphere $\mathbb S^2$
Andreas Zastrow conjectured, and Cannon–Conner–Zastrow proved, that filling one hole in the Sierpiński curve with a disk results in a planar Peano continuum that is not homotopy equivalent to a 1-dimensional set. Zastrow's example is the motivation for this paper, where we characterize those planar Peano continua that are homotopy equivalent to 1-dimensional sets. While many planar Peano continua are not homotopy equivalent to 1-dimensional compacta, we prove that each has fundamental group that embeds in the fundamental group of a 1-dimensional planar Peano continuum. We leave open the following question: Is a planar Peano continuum homotopically 1-dimensional if its fundamental group is isomorphic with the fundamental group of a 1-dimensional planar Peano continuum?